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Juzef Pilsudski (1867-1935) was Polish politician, statesman, who was the main actor in re-establishing independent Poland (1918). He was Lithuanian by blood but he was born in Polish speaking nobleman family near Pabradė, Zalavas, Lithuania.

When their house burned, they moved to Vilnius (Bokštas Street, 8). Pilsudski attended Russian gymnasium and was interested in social ideas. In 1885 he entered Charkov University, the faculty of medicine. Then he started his revolutionary activities. He was arrested in Vilnius, in 1887. He was expatriated to Siberia until 1892. When he came back, he lived near Tauragė.

He entered the Poland Socialist Party and became one its leaders. He also became the editor of newspaper ‘Robotnik’ and the member of Social Democrats Party of Poland. He was in Japan during the war between Russia and Japan (1904-1905) trying to guarantee Japanese support to Polish rebellion. When Poland Social Party collapsed, he became the leader of its right wing. He organized Polish legions during the First World War. He was arrested by Germans and imprisoned in Magdeburg in 1917.

Nevertheless, he was released in 1918 and came to Warsaw, where he became the leader of the country. His army protected Poland and West Europe from Bolsheviks in 1919-1921.
His purpose was Poland federation with Lithuania, Belarus and Ukraine. There is one his saying, which is widely known: ‘Poland is like a pug-nosed: all that is most valuable is in the periphery while the centre of it is empty’. Thus, Pilsudski did not value Lithuania as a separate unit, as well as Ukraine and Belarus.

He re-established Vilnius University but as a Polish educational institution and gave it the name of Stefan Batory. He and his supporters tried to perform pro-Polish overturn in Kaunas but they were stopped by Lithuanian government.
Pilsudski retired from his activities in 1922 but he came back in 1926 and dictatorially ruled the country until his death. He used to spend his summers in Druskininkai; he also had his property near Vilnius.
Pilsudski’s body was buried in Cracow . However his heart was together with her mother’s (Marija Pilsudska) body, buried in Rasos graveyard, in Vilnius.


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Feliks Dzerzhinski (1877-1926) political activist of Russian Bolsheviks. He came from Minsk, from Polish nobleman family. He attended gymnasium in Vilnius. He entered Lithuanian Social Democrat Party in 1895 and cooperated with Lithuanian Social Democrats (Andrius Domaševičius) for some time.

He established illegal printing-house in Vilnius and published illegal newspaper ‘Kowienski Robotnik’ in Kaunas in 1897. He was arrested several times; he was also expatriated to Siberia. He supported Vladimir Lenin’s political position. He was one of the leaders among Bolsheviks in the organization of the revolution. He was famous for his fanaticism and cruelty. Dzerzhinski also became the communication minister of the nation in Russia.

He was appointed as the chairman of the Special Commission. The commission, which was governed by Dzerzhinski, started ‘the red terror’ (they destroyed thousands of people without do not having in mind any humanistic principles. They destroyed everyone who was the enemy of Bolsheviks). This Special Commission was re-names several times but its nature remained the same. Dzerzhinski inheritors continued his activities; sometimes they were even crueler than Dzerzhinski himself.

In 1991, in August, people demolished his monument in Moscow. It was the sign of the end of collapse of totalitarianism in Russia and in these countries which were dependent on Russia.
In Lithuania, which was occupied by the Soviet Union, Dzerzhinski (,iron Feliks’) cult was encouraged. There was a museum devoted for this person in Vilnius (Paupys Street, 26); and there was a memorial board for Dzerzhinski in Vilnius University. Kalvarija Street was named by the name of Feliks Dzerhhinski.


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Marytė Melnikaitė (1923-1943) was considered to be the hero of the Soviet Union. She was born in Zarasai. She entered the Red Army (the 16th division) in 1942. She was sent to the back of Germans where she took part in partisan activities. She was arrested near Gidžiūnai, Ignalina region. Melnikaitė was tormented and fusilladed by Nazis. She was given the name of the hero of Soviet Union in 1944.



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Vincas Mickevičius-Kapsukas (1880-1935) was born in Būdviečiai (near Vilkaviškis). He was one of the founders of Communist Party in Lithuania. He was eliminated from the priest seminary of Seinai in 1898. He worked in Tilžė, in the edited newspaper ‘Ūkininkas‘. He was also a ringer until 1902. He was also the member of Social Demokrat Party of Lithuania since1903. He established youth organization of Social democrats which was called ‘Draugas’ in 1904. This organization was re-named in 1905 by the name of Social Democrats Labour Party of Lithuania. In 1905, in September this party joined Social Democrats Party of Lithuania. Then Vincas Mickevičius became the member of this joined party.
In 1904-1906 he worked as an editor for magazine ‘Draugas’ and ‘Darbininkas’. In 1905 he was the organizer of the strike of the farmers. In 1906-1907 he was the cooperator in ‚Naujoji Gadynė‘ and ‚Skardas‘. In 1906, in March, he was arrested and convicted but he succeeded to escape. In 1907, May 19, he was arrested in the street and he was convicted to prison for three years. Nevertheless, when the fact of his escape became evident, he was convicted to prison for eight years in 1909, November 12. He was imprisoned until 1913 and in 1913 he was expatriated in Jenisey but he escaped in 1913. In 1913-1914 he was the cooperator in ‘Vilnis’. In 1914-1916 he worked as a head of the foreign business office in Galicia and Scotland. In 1915-1916 he edited weekly ‘Rankpelnis’ in Great Britain.
In 1916-1917 he was the ideological leader of socialist internationalist Lithuanians of USA. In 1918, December 8 – 1919, February 27 he was the chairman of the temporal revolutionary Council of Lithuania. He lived in Moscow since 1921 and worked in the Internationale of Communists.



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Alfonsas Čeponis
(1924-1944) was considered to be the hero of the Soviet Union. He was born in Kaunas. In 1943 he was sent to the back of Germans where he spread appeals and exercised other diverse practice. He was killed during the battle with Germans. After his death he was given the name of the hero of Soviet Union in 1958.

Juozas Aleksonis (1913-1944) was born in Ricieliai, in Utena region. During the Second World War he spread out Appeals in Kaunas and exercised other anti-Hitlerian practice. He studied at partisan radiomen school. He was killed during the fight with police. After his death he was given the name of the hero of Soviet Union in 1958.

Hubertas Borisa (1920-1944) was considered to be the hero of the Soviet Union. He was born in Žadavainiai, in Utena region. He was sent to the back of Germans in 1942 where he spread out appeals and exercised other anti-Hitlerian practice. He was arrested and tormented in 1944. He committed a suicide. After his death he was given the name of the hero of Soviet Union in 1958.



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Stanislav Vaupshasov -Vaupšas
He was a Soviet scout. He was born in Gruzdžiai, in Šiauliai region, Lithuania. In 1918 he entered the Red Army by his own will. He took part in the Civil War of Russia. In 1919 he graduated from Smolensk military political school. He worked in reconnaissance parts since 1924. He took part in the Civil War of Spain in 1937-1939. He was the leader of partisan party of special mission in Belarus. He was also given the name of the hero of Soviet Union. In 1946-1954 he was the worker in security parts in Lithuania. He also actively took part in the destruction of the participants of the movement of Lithuanian partisan resistance.





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